TITLE: CELL ANALOGIES COLLAGE
AUTHOR: KATHARINE M. NOONAN
TYPE OF ACTIVITY: PROJECT
TARGET AUDIENCE: BIOLOGY
ABSTRACT: This project challenges students to make 15 original and appropriate functional
analogies between cell structures and everyday objects. The students draw a typical
plant or animal cell on a small (6" X 8") piece of drawing paper. They paste the drawing in the center of a large sheet of construction paper. Pointers from the
cell structures lead to pictures cut from magazines or newspapers and a functional
analogy expressed in the student's own words. When the collages are displayed, each
one is different. Students enjoy reading one another's analogies and displaying their own
wit and ingenuity. By reading and discussing different analogies, students become
familiar with the structure and function of cell parts.
Background required of students: Students should have been introduced to cell structures
and their functions through reading and lecture.
Preparation time: Materials for collages must be gathered and set up for student
Class time needed: Part of a day to define an analogy, give one or two examples,
and explain the collage format. The collage may be done at home or during 2 or 3
MATERIALS: 6" X 8" pieces of drawing paper, 14" X 28" pieces of colored construction
paper, text with illustration of cell structure to refer to, scissors, paste, drawing
pencils or pens, magazines and newspaper ad sections.
PROCEDURE: Define analogy: "A comparison between two things which are similar in
some respects, but otherwise are different. An explaining of something by comparing
it point by point with something else." -- Webster's
Discuss the difference between structure and function, and structural and functional
Give examples from areas other than cell biology. Give only one or two examples of
functional analogies for cell parts (so students will be able to think of as many
"original" analogies as possible). Solicit examples from students for extra credit
and post them in the room along with Webster's definition.
Explain collage format: I use the assignment sheet below.
CELL ANALOGIES COLLAGE
"It takes 3 million cells to cover the head of a pin, but only one cell collage
to cover a large part of your Biology grade!"
1. Draw a plant or animal cell in pencil on 6" X 8" white paper. Include the following
BASIC TEN EXTRA CREDIT
cell or plasma membrane cell wall
Golgi apparatus lysosome
endoplasmic reticulum * Check with me about other
nuclear envelope EC structures
2. Correctly identify your cell as a plant cell or an animal cell.
3. Find out the function (or main job) each structure has in the cell. (Read your
book, check the glossary, color sheets, and class notes.)
4. Find a magazine or newspaper picture of an everyday object which has a similar
function (or use) as each cell structure. Write an analogy to show the similarity
between the cell part and the everyday object. Be sure to explain the reasoning
behind your analogies. ( The nucleus is like a brain because it controls and coordinates the
activities of the whole cell in the same way the brain controls and coordinates activities
of the body.)
5. Paste your cell drawing in the middle of a poster-size piece of construction paper.
6. Paste the pictures of everyday objects at the edges of the construction paper
paper. Label the pictures with your neatly written analogies and make a pointer
to the correct structure in your cell drawing.
A - Neat, complete, 15 analogies, 5 original ones that apply to your
B - Neat, complete, 12 total analogies, 2 or more original ones that
C - Complete, no original analogies and/or no EC structures.
D - Messy, incomplete, or wrong.
F - Too messy for words, wrong, incomplete.
0 - No collage turned in will result in 0 points.
: Students may complete the collages at home or in class.
: Grade the collages using the criteria for neatness, completeness and originality
described on the student hand-out. Be sure to post all of the collages in the room
to recognize student creativity, diversity, and originality. Enjoy!